Besides the Austronesian languages, there are some 800 languages divided into perhaps sixty small language families, with unclear relationships to each other or to any other languages, plus many language isolates. Note that some of these automatically generated groupings are due to chance resemblances. (Ross argues that open-class pronoun systems, where borrowings are common, are found in hierarchical cultures such as those of Southeast Asia and Japan, where pronouns indicate details of relationship and social status rather than simply being grammatical pro-forms as they are in the more egalitarian New Guinea societies.). The majority of the Papuan languages are spoken on the island of New Guinea, with a number spoken in the Bismarck Archipelago, Bougainville Island and the Solomon Islands to the east, and in Halmahera, Timor and the Alor archipelago to the west. According to the Ethnologue website, there are approximately 6,912 known living languages in the world today. With a share of around 78%, it is most widespread in Papua New Guinea. Amid such a multiplicity of tongues, Tok Pisin serves as an effective lingua franca. Although pronouns are conservative elements in a language, they are both short and utilise a reduced set of the language's phonemic inventory. Joseph Greenberg proposed an Indo-Pacific phylum containing the (Northern) Andamanese languages, all Papuan languages, and the Tasmanian languages, but not the Australian Aboriginal languages. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the birth rate greatly exceeded the world average, while the death rate was moderately high and falling. It is a multilingual nation with over 840 languages spoken, with twelve of them lacking many speakers. The small urban population lives for the most part in towns whose original location was determined either by access to a good harbour for early colonial planters or, in the interior, by the availability of level land sufficient for an airstrip. New Guinea languages (351 Papuan, 188 Austronesian) though, in many cases, available information was meagre. In the colonial era copra was the premier crop in lowland areas, but now only small amounts are produced, together with some rubber in the southern region. Extinct Tambora and the East Papuan languages have not been addressed, except to identify Yele as an Austronesian language. However, it is spoken by about 100,000 people or 1-2% of the population. Such diversity makes it a linguist's playground!  Since perhaps only a quarter of Papuan languages have been studied in detail, linguists' understanding of the relationships between them will continue to be revised. Despite the apparent inroads made by introduced religions, much of the population also maintains traditional religious beliefs, and rituals of magic, spells, and sorcery are still widely practiced. The various high-level families may represent distinct migrations into New Guinea, presumably from the west. Ross has proposed 23 Papuan language families and 9–13 isolates. Joseph Greenberg proposed that the Andamanese languages (or at least the Great Andamanese languages) off the coast of Burma are related to the Papuan or West Papuan languages. The north coast and northeastern archipelagoes are generally well-populated, despite the hazards of volcanic eruptions, frequent earth tremors, and, rarely, tsunamis. They are Tok Pisin, English, Hiri Motu, and Papua New Guinean Sign Language. The major exception has been the cultivation of oil palm in West New Britain (on previously little-used volcanic soils) and on the eastern mainland, boosted by foreign investment. , Two of Wurm's isolates have since been linked as the. Papuan speakers, who constitute the great majority of the population, live mainly in the interior. Names ) languages are to be Papua New Guinea one of the classifications below suggested and named Sidney... 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